If life is what happens to our plans, then dance is what happens to our steps.
ideas sometimes when you wait they come to you.

Preparation for starting with BAPP

Friday, 27 January 2012


I am in the middle of marking. It is nice to see everyone’s great work.  Here is a quick comment in general about citations:

A quote should be on a separate line, in italics and indented. The quote also needs a ‘lead in’ and ‘lead out’ in your text. You cannot just put it there to make a point by itself.

“Dewey’s Pragmatist perspective further develops the research’s understanding of dance as language. Whereas above phenomenological hermeneutics implies dance could be thought of as dealing with the leftovers of verbal language Dewey reverses this idea:

‘language, signs and significance, come into existence not by intent and mind but by over-flow, by-product, in gestures and sounds. The story of language is the story of the use made of these occurrences; a use that is eventual as well as eventful.’  (Dewey 1958, p.175)

Dewey sees verbal language as an adornment to the act of communicating. He sees communication as the drive to share and collaborate meaning. Effort of doing this can lead to verbal language but communication is not brought into existence by verbal language and the effort of communication could just as well lead to a movement language . ” – Akinleye, unpublished thesis

The citation (Dewey, 1958, p.175) is linked to the following in the bibliography, which should not be separate, but a part of the same document. That means that when you read the above quote you can turn to the back pages and see which book it is. The citation tells us this: to find the book you go to the bibliography and look for the name Dewey. I may have a number of books by Dewey I have quoted from so then you look for the one published in 1958. Now you can locate the full detail example below. 

If there were two books by Dewey published in 1958 in my bibliography then I would put
(Dewey, 1958a p.175). Then the bibliography I would put 1958a again so you know which one of the two books by him published in 1958 I was talking about. So the bibliography entry will look like this:

Dewey, J. (1958) Experience and nature, New York: Dover Publications.

This citation format is Harvard:

Surname, initcal of first name. (Year the book you are looking at was published), where it was published: who published it

Note the punctuation as well as the content of the text. Using this method means your work is in line with standard citation formats, which means that anyone who is used to doing research can read your work and find the very text you have copied the quote from. Every book published in UK is in the British Library. That means that someone can find the book you are talking about. That is what citation is for. It is not to prove you know the quote was in a book by X.

Also note that the date is the date of the book you are holding in your hand when you look at the quote. So for instance Dewey did not first publish ‘Experience and Nature’ in 1958, but that is the date of the book I have, so when I put the page number (…, p.175) you can find the page with the quote on it. In a book published earlier or later the print size maybe different or the size of the book pages etc… this means that that quote is not on page 175 of those books. This is why it is important the date is of the publication you have looked at, otherwise the page number is meaningless.

Please think about this….
Does it make sense?



  1. Hi Adesola,
    I guess I lost alot of marks on my citations. I put them all on the same line, within the sentence. I used a different technique, as it was the way I was taught in school, and also the way my sister who is currently in higher education has been doing her work too. Originally I did it in the Harvard method and then I must have over corrected it, because I thought it didn't 'flow.'
    Oh dear, I think I must have lost a lot of marks!

  2. You are not being marked on this particularly, it is the overall content of your work that is most important. But It is useful for you to know. Try not to think in terms of ticking boxes and more in terms of an on-going learning progression where you acquire useful knowledge for other situations as well as the BAPP course.

  3. Hi Adesola, I think it would be useful to discuss this at the first mod 3 campus session next week. It is important that we fully understand what is expected in our final project report. Many thanks.

  4. Thanks, this is really useful. I have just typed up the first draft my lit review. I was wondering if the rule for lead in and lead out applies to that as well. Also in the lit review do I need to reference ideas from the text if I am not quoting. (I know for the critical reflection I do, I'm unsure if that is the case for the lit review).

  5. Thanks Adesola, that's really clear. I'm going to refer back to this post when I write my next piece.

  6. If the idea is directly from someone else you need to reference where it is from. (So if we want to know more we know where to look. It is also to acknowledge the person who had the idea). This is true whatever you are writing. If the idea is informed by a number of ideas you need to reference the ideas you are drawing from. This links back to notions of networks in module one. You want to show how you fit into the network of people also thinking about X.

  7. Yes this makes sense. But if we are refering to a blog of our own, do we use an embedded hyperlink? Do we then also have to follow that similar Harvard citation format for our own online blogspot weblink in our Bibliography?